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US20100319370A1

An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a ,...

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Indirect vs Direct The Heat Transfer Method Does Affect ,

Mar 01, 1999 0183 32 Most applications employ steam as an indirect source, using either a heat exchanger to transfer heat to a gas carrier or a jacketed vessel or drum to heat a surface It also is used as a direct heat source to achieve effective drying The amount of energy that can be carried by steam is related to the pressure at which the steam is delivered...

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Shrinkage of Food Materials During Drying Current Status ,

Jul 18, 2018 0183 32 Sometimes the relative humidity of air may control the material shrinkage At low relative humidity the Biot number a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculation increases, ultimately limiting the material shrinkage Ratti, 1994 Case hardening strongly affects the amount of material shrinkage evident at low relative air humidity...

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Indirect dryingediteddocx

Such dryers use the collected or absorbed heat to operate the blower and are called active dryers It is reported that black coloured material can absorb and sustain the heat for a longer period The indirect dryer uses this concept to heat air separately within a protected environment and then channels it into the stored food absorbing the ....

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Recent Advances in Conventional Drying of Foods A Review

material as a result of concurrent heat and mass transfer 1 Heat , some the major problem faced during open air drying 1 The , An indirect solar dryer is illustrated in Figure 3A...

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PDF SOLAR ENERGY DRYING SYSTEMS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE ,

They have the disadvantage of being easily damaged by strong winds FAO, 1995 Figure 5 Showing a tent dryer Source Appropedia, 2013 42 Passive dryers They are commonly known as indirect mode dryers However, some are constructed in direct mode and mixed mode In passive dryers, heat is normally directed to the crops that are being dried...

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Experimental Investigation of Phase Change Material Based ,

material that is used in review of sensible heat storage media for drying plants is tabulated 13 E l-sebaii et al investigated with t he help of indirect solar dryer, using sand as a storage material 14 Mohjer et al 15 determined that the drying time of grapes is reduced to approximately 16 with the help of sensible...

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Improving the Airflow Distribution Within an Indirect ,

This paper seeks to remedy this problem by adding a second air inlet to the cabinet dryer in order to get a more homogeneous temperature Unsteady turbulent airflow and heat transfer through a two-dimensional model is carried out for a typical day of August under the climatic conditions of Tlemcen Algeria Figs fruit was selected to be dried...

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9 V May 2021 https //doiorg/1022214/ijraset2021

II LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Imre, 2014 , Direct, indirect and mixed dryers Direct solar dryers are characterized by the use of transparent covers to protect the crop from rain, dust and other sources of contamination,while indirect dryers use opaque chambers and solar collectors as a separate or inbuilt structure...

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Journal of Environmental Management

active, and hybrid solar dryers focusing on the method of air movement natural or forced convection and mode of heat transfer direct or in-direct are presented Fig 1 21 Passive solar dryers The direct passive solar dryers natural convection such as cabinet and greenhouse dryers have a simple and cheap construction A drying...

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Reassessment of the scale

Jun 27, 2015 0183 32 Numerical Investigation of Single-Phase Heat Transfer in a 2 2 Rod Bundle with Spacer Grids for a High Pressure Heat Transfer Facility 21 June 2017 Nuclear Technology, Vol 199, No 2 Transitional flow in a Rushton turbine stirred tank...

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1 Fundamentals of Energy Analysis of Dryers

1 Thermal inefficiencies in the dryer exhaust heat content in convective dryers, sensible heating of solids, heat losses from dryer body 2 Thermal inefficiencies in the utility heat supply system steam generation efficiency, steam leaks and mains loss 3 Additional energy demands power for solids transport, vacuum pumps and air fans...

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PDF Comparative approach to the performance of direct ,

Comparative approach to the performance of direct and indirect solar drying of sludge from sewage plants, experimental and theoretical evaluation , By Beatriz Castillo Tellez International Journal of Green Energy Moisture transfer modeling during solar drying of potato cylinders considering shrinkage , investigation of convective drying ....

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Overhauling A Thermal Fluid Heating System 2017

Jan 02, 2017 0183 32 Unistress Corp designs and manufactures prestressed concrete building materials in the Northeast With one of the largest facilities in North America, the company specializes in large-scale structures such as concrete cooling towers, industrial plants and retail buildings, and major roadway overpass Among other ventures, Unistress was tapped for a major roadway ,...

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Recent developments in greenhouse solar drying A review ,

Feb 01, 2018 0183 32 Ramos et al developed a mixed mode type solar dryer in North of Portugal Integrating heat and mass transfer models solved by an explicit finite difference method was used for simulation of solar drying of grap Picture of the solar dryer is shown in Fig 24 Production of dried foods can be optimized, controlled and accurate drying time can ....

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Transforming heat transfer with thermal metamaterials and ,

Mar 12, 2021 0183 32 Heat transfer is a fundamental phenomenon underpinning energy transport 1 and is generally induced by a temperature difference in space The main concerns of heat transfer studies are temperature ....

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Energies Free Full

However, indirect drying technology has some prominent problems, such as high energy consumption, dehydration, moisture reabsorption, and production of large amounts of dust Indirect drying technology is the transfer of heat from a heat source to a medium, which may be heat-conducting oil, steam, or air...

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ChemEngineering Free Full

Oct 25, 2019 0183 32 The second is indirect or contact dryers, where heat is transferred mainly by conduction and the material to be dried and the heating medium are separate The heat is supplied to the dried material through a heat-transfer surface, which defines the volume of the dryer Steam or hot water is often used as a heating medium 4,5...

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Numerical Simulation of Solar Greenhouse Dryer Using ,

ocean and marine current are indirect source of solar energy 2 II LITERATURE REVIEW Sahu et al 3 conducted experiment on simple and modified green house dryer with inclined roof to analyze the increase in drying rate of potato flak The weight of potato flakes was reduced by 801 in modified greenhouse dryer in just 5 hours...

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Current Trends in Indirect Solar Dryer A Review

V Shrivastava et al 4 through transparent glass and heat is absorbed by product stated that convective heat transfer coefficient is an important parameter in solar dryer system design He has done the heat transfer modelling to compare heat transfer coefficients of open sun drying and indirect sun drying...

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Environmental Sustainability Analysis of a Hybrid Heat ,

Nov 01, 2020 0183 32 Dryer System Description and Experimental Procedure The prototype hybrid heat source dryer, HHSD Fig 2 consisted of three major units namely air heater units solar collector and electrical resistance wire , drying compartment with two stratum of wire-mesh rack , and microprocessor Arduino, version C , SPK16000G Table 1 demonstrates the technical ,...

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Analysis of Flow Through Solar Dryer Duct Using CFD

13 PROBLEM STATEMENT 1 Thermal efficiency of solar air Dryer is generally considered poor because of low heat transfer capability between absorber plate and air flowing in the duct 2 A lots of agricultural grains,vegitables and foods are going to be wasted during harvesting and storing in moisturizing environment...

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The Application of Solar Energy in Agricultural Systems

direct and indirect The direct solar cooker consists of an insulated box with transparent window, through which the sunlight enters It is the most developed and it is for home cooking 27 In the indirect stove fluid is used for heat transfer from the collector to a baking sheet 31...

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Review of Solar Dryer for Drying Agricultural Products

heat transfer between the hot air and the wet crop Drying takes place due to the difference in moisture concentration between the drying air and the air in the vicinity of crop surface Fig 4 Indirect Solar Dryer 4 Hybrid Solar Drying HBD The hybrid solar dryers combine the features of the direct and indirect type solar energy dryers...

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Experimental Research of Drying Characteristic of Red ,

Jul 04, 2020 0183 32 developed the mathematical model to evaluate the convective and mass transfer coefficients of dried ebony wood in a natural convection indirect solar dryer The obtained convective heat and mass transfer coefficients during drying of the sample varied from 025 to 55 W/ m 2 K and from 1010 -8 to 5510 -8 m/s, respectively...

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Numerical Analysis of Direct Type Greenhouse Dryer ,

Applied Mechanics Reviews ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems, Part B Mechanical Engineering ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control...

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US20070256316A1

A method and apparatus for indirect-heat thermal processing of material, such as a dryer or evaporator for treatment of particulate material, is provided In one embodiment, a dryer for drying particulate material comprises a plurality of heat transfer plates arranged in spaced relationship for the flow of the material to be dried therebetween...

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Applications of solar energy based drying technologies in ,

Nov 15, 2021 0183 32 Indirect solar dryers ISD In this method, the product is not exposed directly to sun radiation but convective heat transfer between heated air and wet material is responsible for moisture removal Lingayat et al, 2018 Lingayat et al, 2020c Moisture removal rate and heat transfer can be controlled in a better way than DSD dryers...

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PDF INDIRECT THERMAL DRYING OF LIGNITE DESIGN ASPECTS ,

Hear Transfer Coeflcienr in Dryers Riquelme 1998 has proposed a correlation for the prediction of the volumetric heat transfer coefficient U, kcalih m3 OC of a flighted, direct heat autothennal rotary dryer as a function of the operating hold-up vlv and the gas mass flow rate per unit cross sectional area of dryer...

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Modified Problem Table Algorithm for Energy Targeting ,

A simple modification of the original problem table algorithm PTA to target the minimum utility requirements in a heat exchanger network is proposed in this paper The modified problem table algorithm MPTA eliminates the requirement of identification of streams to determine the net heat capacity flow rate at each temperature interval Targeted utility requirements and the grand ,...

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